行動経済学 ダニエル カーネマン 14

But now, because the reflective self is in charge, you may end up -- some people may end up moving to California. And that really starts with a basic response of our memories -- it starts immediately. .st0{fill:#FFFFFF;} PRESENTED by WingArc1st Inc. And it's a very easy question. And it's sort of interesting to trace what is going to happen to people who move to California in the hope of getting happier. There seems to be a discrepancy. And this is a bit hard to justify I think. The Gallup Organization has a world poll where more than half a million people have been asked questions about what they think of their life and about their experiences, and there have been other efforts along those lines. 時間を節約し効率化する、クリエイティビティの求められる業務にフォーカスするための力になるからです。 Is that something you can share since you do have a few moments left now? There is a huge wave of interest in happiness, among researchers. We think of our future as anticipated memories. And yet, somehow you get the sense that they should count, that what happens during these moments of experience is our life. And they're all -- happiness for moments is a fairly complicated process. It is a completely different notion. I mean, how much do we consume our memories? And you are asked, "Who of them suffered more?" I have that sense that when we go on vacations this is very frequently the case; that is, we go on vacations, to a very large extent, in the service of our remembering self. What are the emotions that can be measured? h�b``�c``�c`e`p�ff@ a6 �8�Ű,�ХB��Z ���2:::8@�����h@��3d��q ��@�2�Q�A��H������� This is not about how happily a person lives. And the main lesson I think that we have learned is they are really different. It's the finite resource that we're spending while we're on this earth. 行動経済学 保険業界の革命に主導的な役割を担う BEはさまざまな分野で広く採用されており、今日、多くの学術機関 テクノロジーは私たちの生活のあらゆる面を変化させており、私 たちの業界が現在経験しているパラダイムシフトの要因であり、 The experiencing self has no voice in this choice. Now, if I had ever opened the folder with the 600 pictures in it, I would have spent another hour. Is there any chance that politicians, that the country generally, would take a finding like that seriously and run public policy based on it? You have that much uncertainty. CA: But Danny, the whole American endeavor is about life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness. I had somebody count the number of books with "happiness" in the title published in the last five years and they gave up after about 40, and there were many more. So the correlation is low. Imagine that for your next vacation, you know that at the end of the vacation all your pictures will be destroyed, and you'll get an amnesic drug so that you won't remember anything. Clearly, what is happening is money does not buy you experiential happiness, but lack of money certainly buys you misery, and we can measure that misery very, very clearly. And when I think about that, I think about a vacation we had in Antarctica a few years ago, which was clearly the best vacation I've ever had, and I think of it relatively often, relative to how much I think of other vacations. Now, I may be a bit extreme, you know, in how little appetite I have for consuming memories, but even if you do more of this, there is a genuine question: Why do we put so much weight on memory relative to the weight that we put on experiences? What that means is if you met somebody, and you were told, "Oh his father is six feet tall," how much would you know about his height? Well, it turns out that climate is not very important to the experiencing self and it's not even very important to the reflective self that decides how happy people are. But now there is another question: "How much did these patients think they suffered?" Copyright © DigitalCast All Rights Reserved. Now, the remembering self does more than remember and tell stories. *��F4*�1BR�C̣�a4�%�Ĉ���%&`l�h�H=�n F��%VX�5�9jقS2P�C,R�-Ѱ|%�PL]�e,���N F=�N�ˎh8��'4��@�E��@#�/4��@#�/.p5�����8���h8�A����q�F�=��V���I1��#�71�2D,V�?�}to�l|�OZ5������`��xrv4=���P��ݽ��Q�QIZ�z���`oz6��\_R˔;��h�7J�T�&����z��!�y1x9�x7:�~>G�Jr�.��D�����l6���?x5>�\�.��{t���yty�D�q�x�`�S�R������2|x�A��� Ŀ��ſ�דӱ"z��y9z7���}�݋�?>���N�����b. And basically you can look at this, you know, as a tyranny of the remembering self, and you can think of the remembering self sort of dragging the experiencing self through experiences that the experiencing self doesn't need. They counted for nothing because he was left with a memory; the memory was ruined, and the memory was all that he had gotten to keep. There are really two concepts of happiness that we can apply,one per self. The recognition is going to be slow in the United States, no question about that, but in the U.K., it is happening, and in other countries it is happening. Endings are very, very important and, in this case, the ending dominated. There is a lot of happiness coaching. Now, what you could do with Patient A, and we actually ran clinical experiments, and it has been done, and it does work -- you could actually extend the colonoscopy of Patient A by just keeping the tube in without jiggling it too much. DK: You know I think that there is recognition of the role of happiness research in public policy. And that is true of the stories that memory delivers for us, and it's also true of the stories that we make up. And if you do that for a couple of minutes, you have made the experiencing self of Patient A worse off, and you have the remembering self of Patient A a lot better off, because now you have endowed Patient A with a better story about his experience. Now, when we were on the phone a few weeks ago, you mentioned to me that there was quite an interesting result came out of that Gallup survey. Here are two patients, those are their recordings. h��[�n9��G���@���8N�'��ęqf���G�c�f1y��Y``�ks�+�[lY�:JlgA��d�,��"��ui%+Qi�*)%=u%����d�����H�JIP�s,R,P�G��� �֢RJH��ee��TN+��j�)g(f�bDA�H-k�1����J@L�F��3T�bT΀�w��S ! We know that happiness is mainly being satisfied with people that we like, spending time with people that we like. And let me begin with one example. We know that money is very important, goals are very important. He had had the experience. And neither of these stories is very inspiring or great -- but one of them is this distinct ... (Laughter) but one of them is distinctly worse than the other. We know that. I mean, most of the moments of our life -- and I calculated, you know, the psychological present is said to be about three seconds long; that means that, you know, in a life there are about 600 million of them; in a month, there are about 600,000 -- most of them don't leave a trace. If I tell you that somebody ranked their life eight on a scale of ten, you have a lot of uncertainty about how happy they are with their experiencing self. The first of these traps is a reluctance to admit complexity. Now, the experiencing self lives its life continuously. Chris Anderson: Thank you. Now, the two selves bring up two notions of happiness. And even when we think about the future, we don't think of our future normally as experiences. It has moments of experience,one after the other. YouTube|Daniel Kahneman: The riddle of experience vs. memory. Now, very quickly, another reason we can not think straight about happiness is that we do not attend to the same things when we think about life, and we actually live. And the answer is really straightforward: They are lost forever. (Laughter) And what happens is when you think about living in California, you are thinking of the contrast between California and other places, and that contrast, say, is in climate.

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